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Dogri (an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about two million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, but also in northern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, other parts of Kashmir, and elsewhere. Dogri speakers are called Dogras, and the Dogri-speaking region is called Duggar. Dogri is a member of the Western Pahari Group of languages. The language is referred to as Pahari in Pakistan and Pakistan-administered parts of Kashmir. Unusually, for an Indo-European language, Dogri is tonal, a trait it shares with other Western Pahari languages and Punjabi.

Dogri was originally written using the Takri script, which is closely related to the Sharada script employed by Kashmiri and the Gurmukhi script used to write Punjabi. It is now more commonly written in Devanagari in India, and the Nasta'liq form of Perso-Arabic in Pakistan and Pakistan-administered Kashmir.

Meitei (also Meithei, Meetei, Manipuri) is the predominant language and lingua-franca in the state of Manipur, in northeastern India. It is the official language in government offices. Meitei is also spoken in the Indian states of Assam and Tripura and in Bangladesh and Myanmar.

Meitei has proven to be a large integrating factor among all ethnic groups in Manipur who use it to communicate among themselves.

Meitei has been recognized as the Manipuri language by the Indian Union and has been included in the list of scheduled languages (included in the 8th schedule by the 71st amendment of the constitution in 1992). Meitei is taught as a subject up to the post-graduate level (Ph.D.) in Universities of India, apart from being a medium of instruction up to the undergraduate level in Manipur.

Although Meitei was formerly called Manipuri, it should not be confused with the Indo-Aryan language called Bishnupriya Manipuri that was spoken in Manipur between the 13th and 19th centuries.

Santali is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austro-Asiatic, related to Ho and Mundari. It is spoken by about six million people in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan.. Most of its speakers live in India, in the states of Jharkhand, Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Tripura, and West Bengal. It has its own alphabet, known as Ol Chiki, but literacy is very low, between 10 to 30%. Santali is spoken by the Santhals.

Sindhi is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. It is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by approximately 18.5 million people in Pakistan, and 2.8 million in India. It is also a recognised official language in both of these countries. Although the language is predominantly Indo-Aryan, it also shows up signs of Dravidian influence, making it unique in its importance and identity. Most Sindhi speakers in Pakistan are concentrated in Sindh. The remaining speakers are found in India and amongst the Sindhi diaspora community which are scattered throughout the world. The Sindhi language has spread as the Hindu Sindhis were forced to leave Sindh when Sindh became part of Pakistan during the partition of British India in 1947. The language was once written in Devnagri; however, with the mediation of the British East India Company, a modified Arabic script was produced. The Government of India recognizes both the Devanagari script for Sindhi as well as the modified Arabic.

Sindhi is taught as a first language in the schools of south-east Pakistan. In India, especially in the State of Maharashtra, many educational institutions managed by Sindhi community and in the schools of such society, Sindhi is taught either as the medium of instruction or as a subject. Sindhi language has a vast vocabulary; this has made it a favourite of many writers and consequently much literature and poetry have been written in Sindhi. Dialects of Sindhi are spoken in southern Punjab, Balochistan, Northwest province of Pakistan (NWFP) and also Gujarat as well as Rajasthan in India.

Source: www.wikipedia.com






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